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UNIVERSELE VERKLARING
VAN MENSEREGTE

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION
OF HUMAN RIGHTS

Aanhef

Aangesien erkenning vir die inherente waardigheid en die gelyke en onvervreembare reg van alle lede van die menslike ras die basis vir vryheid, geregtigheid en vrede in die wereld is;

Preamble

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Aangesien minagting vir menseregte barbaarse dade wat die gewete van die mens aangetas het en die aanvang van 'n wereld waarin mense vryheid van spraak, geloof, vrees en behoefte het, gesien word as die hoogste aspirasie van die gemiddelde mens; Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Aangesien dit noodsaaklik is dat menseregte deur die wet beskerm word ten einde te voorkom dat mense nie gedwing gaan word om in opstand teen tirannie en onderdrukking te kom nie; Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Aangesien dit noodsaaklik is om die ontwikkeling van vriendelike bande tussen nasies aan te moedig; Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Aangesien die volke wat lid van die Verenigde Volke Organisasie is, hul geloof in fundamentele menseregte in die Handves beklemtoon, in die waardigheid en waarde van die menslike persoon, in die gelyke regte van mans en vrouens en dit ten doel het om sosiale vooruitgang en 'n beter lewenspeil in groter vryheid te bevorder; Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Aangesien Lidstate hulle voorgeneem het om in samewerking met die Verenigde Volke universele respek en agting vir menseregte en fundamentele vryheid te verwesenlik; en Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Aangesien 'n algemene begrip van hierdie regte en vryhede van groot belang vir die bereiking van hierdie voorneme is, Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge, Now, therefore,
verklaar die Algemene Vergadering

hierdie Universele Verklaring van Menseregte as 'n algemene standaard vir die verwesenliking deur alle mense en nasies, om te verseker dat elke individu en elke deel van die gemeenskap hierdie Verklaring in ag sal neem en deur opvoeding, respek vir hierdie regte en vryhede te bevorder, op nasionale en internasionale vlak, daarna sal strewe om die universele en effektiewe erkenning en agting van hierdie regte te verseker, nie net vir die mense van die Lidstate nie, maar ook vir die mense in die gebiede onder hul jurisdiksie.

The General Assembly, proclaims

this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Artikel 1

Alle menslike wesens word vry, met gelyke waardigheid en regte, gebore. Hulle het rede en gewete en behoort in die gees van broederskap teenoor mekaar op te tree.

Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Artikel 2

Elke persoon het die reg tot al die regte en vryhede soos in die Verklaring vervat is, sonder uitsondering van enige aard soos op grond van ras, geslag, kleur, taal, godsdiens,   geboorte of enige ander status.

Daarbenewens sal geen onderskeid op grond van politieke, geregtelike of internasionale status van die land of gebied waartoe 'n persoon behoort gemaak word nie, hetsy dit 'n onafhanklike trust, nie-selfregerend of onder enige ander beperking van soewereiniteit is.

Article 2

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Artikel 3

Elkeen het die reg tot lewe, vryheid en sekuriteit van persoon.

Article 3

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Artikel 4

Niemand sal in slawerny of knegskap gehou word nie; alle vorms van slawerny en handel in slawe sal verbied word.

Article 4

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Artikel 5

Niemand sal gemartel word of aan wrede, onmenslike of vernederende behandeling of straf blootgestel word nie.

Article 5

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Artikel 6

Elkeen het oral die reg tot erkenning as 'n persoon voor die reg.

Article 6

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Artikel 7

Almal is gelyk voor die reg en het die reg tot gelyke beskerming van die wet. Almal het die reg tot gelyke beskerming teen enige diskriminasie ter skending van hierdie Verklaring en teen enige aanmoediging tot sulke diskriminasie.

Article 7

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Artikel 8

Elkeen het die reg tot effektiewe kompensasie deur bevoegde nasionale tribunale vir dade wat hul fundamentele reg skaad wat deur die wet of grondwet aan hulle gegee is.

Article 8

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Artikel 9

Niemand sal aan arbitrÍre arrestasie, aanhouding of bannelingskap onderworpe wees nie.

Article 9

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Artikel 10

Elkeen het, in volle gelykheid, die reg tot 'n regverdige en openbare verhoor deur 'n onafhanklike en objektiewe tribunaal, in die bepaling van sy regte en verpligtinge en die ondersoek van enige kriminele saak teen hom.

Article 10

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Artikel 11

  1. Elkeen beskuldig van 'n strafbare oortreding het die reg om as onskuldig beskou te word tot skuldig bevind volgens die wet, in 'n openbare saak waarin hy verseker is van die nodige verdediging.
  2. Niemand sal beskuldig word van 'n strafbare oortreding as gevolg van enige daad of nalatigheid wat volgens nasionale of internasionale wet nie 'n misdaad ten tye van die pleeg daarvan was nie. 'n Swaarder straf sal ook nie opgel word as die straf wat toepaslik was ten tye van die oortreding nie.

Article 11

  1. Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
  2. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Artikel 12

Niemand sal onderworpe wees aan arbitrÍre inmenging met sy privaatheid, familie, woning of korrespondensie nie, of aan aanvalle op sy eer en reputasie nie. Elkeen het die reg tot beskerming deur die wet teen sulke inmenging of aanvalle.

Article 12

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Artikel 13

  1. Elkeen het die reg tot vryheid van beweging en verblyf binne die grense van elke staat.
  2. Elkeen het die reg om enige land te verlaat, insluitende sy eie, en na sy land terug te keer.

Article 13

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State.
  2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Artikel 14

  1. Elkeen het die reg tot asiel in ander lande.

  2. Daar mag nie op hierdie reg aanspraak gemaak word tydens vervolging vir nie-politieke oortredings of dade wat strydig is met die doelwitte en beginsels van die Verenigde Volke nie.

Article 14

  1. Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
  2. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Artikel 15

  1. Elkeen het die reg tot burgerskap.
  2. Niemand se burgerskap sal arbitrÍr afgeneem word nie en niemand sal van die reg ontneem word om afstand te doen van burgerskap nie.

Article 15

  1. Everyone has the right to a nationality.
  2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Artikel 16

  1. Volwasse mans en vrouens, sonder enige beperking as gevolg van ras, nasionaliteit of godsdiens, het die reg om te trou en met 'n familie te begin.Hulle kan aanspraak maak op gelyke regte ten opsigte van die huwelik, tydens die huwelik en tydens ontbinding van die huwelik.
  2. Die huwelik sal plaasvind slegs met die vrywillige en volle toestemming van die voornemende huweliksmaats.
  3. Die familie is die natuurlike en fundamentele groepseenheid van die gemeenskap en kan aanspraak maak op beskerming deur die gemeenskap en die Staat.

Article 16

  1. Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.

  2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
  3. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Artikel 17

  1. Elkeen het die reg om individueel en in assosiasie met ander eiendom te besit.
  2. Niemand se eiendom sal arbitrÍr afgeneem word nie.

Article 17

  1. Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
  2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Artikel 18

Elkeen het die reg tot vryheid van denke, gewete en godsdiens; hierdie reg sluit in die reg om van godsdiens of geloof te verander en die vryheid om, hetsy alleen of in 'n gemeenskap, hierdie godsdiens of geloof te beoefen deur verkondiging, aanbidding of heiliging.

Article 18

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Artikel 19

Elkeen het die reg tot vryheid van opinie en uitdrukking; hierdie reg sluit die vryheid in om opinies sonder inmenging te lug en om inligting en idees te vra, te ontvang en te deel deur middel van enige medium ten spyte van grense.

Article 19

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Artikel 20

  1. Elkeen het die reg tot vryheid van vreedsame vergadering en assosiasie.
  2. Niemand sal gedwing word om aan 'n assosiasie te behoort nie.

Article 20

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
  2. No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Artikel 21

  1. Elkeen het die reg om aan die regering van sy land deel te neem, hetsy direk of deur vrylik verkose verteenwoordigers.
  2. Elkeen het die reg tot gelyke toegang tot die openbare dienste in sy land.
  3. Die wil van die mense sal die basis vorm van die owerheid of regering, en hierdie wil sal uitgedruk word deur middel van egte tussenverkiesings.

Article 21

  1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
  2. Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.
  3. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Artikel 22

Elkeen, as 'n lid van die gemeenskap, het die reg tot bestaan-sekerheid en kan aanspraak maak op die verwesenliking van die ekonomiese, sosiale en kulturele regte wat noodsaaklik is vir sy waardigheid en die vrye ontwikkeling van sy persoonlikheid, deur middel van nasionale pogings en internasionale samewerking en volgens die organisasie en hulpbronne van elke staat.

Article 22

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Artikel 23

  1. Elkeen het die reg om te werk, tot die vrye keuse van arbeid, tot regverdige en gunstige werksomstandighede en tot beskerming teen werkloosheid.
  2. Elkeen, sonder diskriminasie, het die reg tot gelyke betaling vir gelyke werk.
  3. Elkeen wat werk kan aanspraak maak op regverdige vergoeding wat aan hom en sy familie 'n menswaardige bestaan verseker en wat aangevul kan word deur ander vorms van sosiale sekerheid, indien nodig.
  4. Elkeen het die reg, ter beskerming van sy belange, om vakbonde te stig en daarby aan te sluit

Article 23

  1. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
  2. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
  3. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
  4. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Artikel 24

Elkeen het die reg tot rus en vrye tyd, insluitend redelike beperkings op werksure en periodieke betaalde verlof.

Article 24

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Artikel 25

  1. Elkeen het die reg tot 'n lewenspeil wat voldoende is vir gesondheid, welsyn vir homself en sy familie, insluitende kos, klere, behuising, mediese sorg en noodsaaklike bestaansekerheid, en die reg tot voordele of onderstandsgeld tydens werkloosheid, siekte, ongeskiktheid, weduweeskap, ouderdom of 'n tekort aan lewens-middele tydens omstandighede buite sy beheer.
  2. Moeders en kinders kan aanspraak maak op spesiale sorg en hulp. Alle kinders, hetsy binne- of buite-egtelik, sal dieselfde sosiale beskerming geniet.

Article 25

  1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
  2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Artikel 26

  1. Elkeen het die reg tot opvoeding. Opvoeding sal gratis wees, ten minste in die elementÍre en fundamentele stadiums. ElementÍre opvoeding sal verpligtend wees. Tegniese en professionele opvoeding sal geredelik beskikbaar wees en ho‘r opvoeding sal net so geredelik op meriete beskikbaar wees.
  2. Opvoeding sal gemik wees op die volle ontwikkeling van die menslike persoonlikheid en op die bevordering van respek vir menseregte en fundamentele vryheid. Dit sal begrip, verdraag-saamheid en vriendskap tussen alle nasies, rasse of etniese groepe bevorder, asook die aktiwiteite van die Verenigde Volke in die handhawing van vrede.
  3. Ouers het die reg om te kies watter tipe opvoeding hulle kinders ontvang.

Article 26

  1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
  2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
  3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Artikel 27

  1. Almal het die reg om vrylik aan die kulturele lewe van hul gemeenskap deel te neem, om die kunste te geniet en in wetenskaplike vooruitgang en voordele te deel.
  2. Elkeen het die reg tot die beskerming van die morele en materi‘le belange wat spruit uit enige wetenskaplike, letterkundige of kunswerk deur hom geproduseer.

Article 27

  1. Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
  2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Artikel 28

Elkeen is geregtig op 'n sosiale en internasionale orde waarin die regte en vryhede beskryf in hierdie Verklaring ten volle verwesenlik kan word.

Article 28

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

Artikel 29

  1. Elkeen het verpligtinge teenoor die gemeenskap waar alleenlik die vrye en volle ontwikkeling van sy persoonlikheid moontlik is.
  2. In die uitoefening van regte en vryhede, sal elke mens slegs onderworpe wees aan die wetlike beperkinge ingestel om deeglike erkenning en respek vir die regte en vryhede van ander te verseker en om die redelike vereistes na te kom vir sedelikheid, openbare orde en die algemene welsyn van 'n demokratiese gemeenskap.
  3. Hierdie regte en vryhede mag in geen geval strydig met die doelwitte en beginsels van die Verenigde Volke uitgeoefen word nie.

Article 29

  1. Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.

  2. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
  3. These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Artikel 30

Niks in hierdie Verklaring mag interpreteer word as impliserend dat enige Staat, groep of persoon die reg het om deel te neem aan enige aktiwiteit of enige daad wat gerig is op die beskadiging van enige regte en vryhede hierin beskryf nie.

Article 30

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.