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List of English words of Sanskrit origin

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This is a list of English words of Sanskrit origin. Many of these words were not directly borrowed from Sanskrit. The meanings of some words have changed slightly after being borrowed.

 A

 
Afghanistan
"Land of the Afghans"; from Arabic: Afġān (افغان) via Prakit: Avagānā (आभगन) which is derived from the Sanskrit tribal name Aśvaka (अश्वक) meaning "horseman", as the country was noted for its fine breed of horses; and the Persian suffix ـستان -stan meaning "land". This name was used in reference to the Kambojas in antiquity.
Ahimsa 
from Sanskrit अहिंसा ahimsā, which means "not-harmful".
Ambarella 
through Sinhalese: ඇඹරැල්ලා ultimately from Sanskrit: अम्बरेल्ला, a kind of tree.
Amrita 
from Sanskrit अमृतम् amrtam, nectar of everlasting life. (see Ambrosia)
Aniline 
through German: Anilin, French: Aniline and Portuguese: Anil from Arabic النيل al-nili and Persian نیلا nila, ultimately from Sanskrit नीली nili.
Aryan 
from Latin Ariana, from Greek Ἀρεία Areia, ultimately from Sanskrit आर्य Arya-s "noble, honorable".
Asana 
from Sanskrit आसन āsanam which means "seat", a term describing yoga postures.
Ashram 
ultimately from Sanskrit आश्रम āsramah, a religious hermitage.
Atoll 
through Maldivean:އަތޮޅު probably ultimately from Sanskrit अंतला antala.
Aubergine 
from Catalan alberginera, via Arabic (باذِنْجان al-badinjan) and Persian (بادنجان badin-gan) ultimately from Sanskrit वातिगगम vātinganah, meaning eggplant.
Avatar 
from Sanskrit अवतार avataara, which means "descent", an refers to the human incarnation of God during times of distress on earth. Thus, Krishna and Rāma were both avataars of Vishnu, who also manifested himself as an avatar many other times to make a total of ten.
Ayurveda 
from Sanskrit आयुर्वेद āyurvedah, which means "knowledge of life".

 B

Bandana 
from Sanskrit बन्धन bandhan, "a bond".
Banyan 
from Hindi baniyaa ultimately from Sanskrit वणिज्‌ waNij, which means "a merchant".
Basmati 
through Hindi बासमती ultimately from Sanskrit वास vāsah.
Bahuvrihi 
from Sanskrit बहुव्रीहि bahuvrīhih, a composite word, meaning 'much rice.'
Beryl 
from Old French beryl, via Latin beryllus, Greek βήρυλλος and Prakrit वेलुरिय (veluriya) ultimately from Sanskrit वैडूर्य vaidurya-, of Dravidian origin, maybe from the name of Belur.
Bhakti 
from Sanskrit भक्ति bhakti, which means "loyalty".
Bhang 
from Hindi भांग bhang, which is from Sanskrit भङ्ग bhanga "hemp".
Bidi 
through Hindi बीड़ी ultimately from Sanskrit वितिकम vitikam.
Brahmin 
from Sanskrit ब्रIह्मण brahmana-s, from brahman.
Brinjal 
from Persian بادنجان badingān, probably from Sanskrit भण्टाकी vātingana.
Buddha 
from Sanskrit बुद्ध buddha, which means "awakened, enligtened", refers to Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism Also refers to one who is enlightened in accordance with the teachings of Buddha or a likeness of Buddha

 C

A cheetah.
Cambodia
via Khmer ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា Kâmpŭchea; ultimately from Sanskrit: Kambujadesa (कम्बोजदेश; land of Kambuja).
Candy 
from Old French sucre candi, via Arabic: قندي qandi and Persian: قند qand probably ultimately from Sanskrit खुड् khanda "piece of sugar", perhaps from Dravidian.
Carmine 
from French carmin, via Middle Latin from Arabic: قرمز qirmiz "crimson", which is from Sanskrit क्रिमिगा krimiga.
Cash 
from Portuguese caixa, from Sinhalese කසි kasi, Tamil காசு kacu, which is from Sanskrit कर्ष karsha, a weight of gold or silver; this is the proper noun related with the miscellaneous coins of small value, common noun "cash" is not of Sanskrit origin.
Cashmere 
from Kashmir, the Himalayan region where this wool is from. The name Kashmere is derived from Ka (का; "water") and shimir (शिमिरि; "to desiccate").
Chador 
through Urdu چادر čâdor and Persian چادر čâdar "tent, mantle, scarf, veil, sheet, table-cloth"; ultimately from Sanskrit छत्त्रम् chattram.
Chakra 
from Sanskrit चक्रं cakra, which means "a circle, a wheel".
Champac 
through Hindi काम्पक ultimately from Sanskrit काम्पका campaka, an evergreen tree.
Cheetah 
from Hindi चिता chita "a leopard", from Sanskrit चित्राका chitraka, which means "speckled".
China 
via Latin Sina, Persian چین Cin, and Sanskrit चीन Chinas; ultimately derived from the name of the Qin Dynasty (秦).
Chintz 
from Hindi छींट chint, which is from Sanskrit चित्रस chitra-s "clear, bright".
Chit 
from Hindi चिट्ठी chitthi "a letter, note", which is from Sanskrit चित्रस chitra-s "uniquely marked".
Chuddar 
through Urdu چادر ultimately from Sanskrit छत्त्रम् chattram.
Chukar 
via Hindi काकोर cakor and Urdu چکور chukar ultimately from Sanskrit चकोर cakorah.
Chukker 
from Hindi चक्कर chakkar, from Sanskrit चक्र cakra, "a circle, a wheel".
Citipati 
from Sanskrit चिति पति citi-pati, which means "a funeral pyre lord".
Cot 
from Hindi ख़त khat "a couch", which is from Sanskrit खट्वा khatva.
Cowrie 
from Hindi कुरी kauri and Urdu کمتدب kauri, from Marathi कवडइ kavadi, which is ultimately from Sanskrit कपर्द kaparda.
Crimson 
from Old Spanish cremesin, via Middle Latin cremesinus from Arabic قرمز qirmiz "a kermes", which is ultimately from Sanskrit कृमिज krmi-ja literally: "red dye produced by a worm."

 D

Dahl 
through Hindi दल dāl ultimately from Sanskrit दलह dalah, meaning cotyledon of a pea pod, a type of Indian food, also refers to lentil in the US.
Das 
from Sanskrit दासा daasa, a slave or servant.
Datura 
through Latin and Hindi: धतूरा dhatūra "jimson weed" ultimately from Sanskrit धत्तुरह dhattūrāh, a kind of flowering plant.
Deodar 
through Hindi दोदर deodār ultimately from Sanskrit देवदारु devadāru, a kind of tree.
Deva 
from Sanskrit देवी deva, which means "a god", akin to Latin deus, "god".
Devi 
from Sanskrit देवी devi, which means "a goddess".
Dharma 
from Pali धम्म dhamma and Sanskrit: धर्म, which means "law, justice".
Dhoti 
through Hindi: धोती ultimately from Sanskrit धुनोति dhūnoti, traditional garment of men's wear in India.
Dinghy 
from Hindi दिन्गी dingi "a tiny boat", probably from Sanskrit द्रोणम drona-m.

 E

 F

Falafel 
from Arabic: فلافل‎, perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit पिप्पल pippalī.

 G

Ganja 
via Hindi गज "Elephant bull" ultimately from Sanskrit गांजा gāñjā, which means "of hemp".
Gaur 
via Hindi गौर "consider" ultimately from Sanskrit गौरह gaurah.
Gavial 
through French and Hindi घड़ियाल ghariyāl ultimately from Sanskrit घंतिक ghantikah, a kind of crocodile.
Gayal 
perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit गौह gauh via Bengali গযল্, a kind of animal.
Gharry 
perhaps finally from Sanskrit गर्त gartah via Hindi: गाड़ी, a kind of vehicle.
Ghee 
through Hindi: घी ultimately from Sanskrit: घृतं ghritam.
Guar 
through Hindi गार ultimately from Sanskrit गॊपलि gopālī, an annual legume.
Gunny 
via Hindi गोनी ultimately from Sanskrit गोणी goni "sack".
Gurkha 
via Nepalese गोर्खा ultimately from Sanskrit गोरक्साह goraksah, "a cowherd".
Guru 
via Hindi गुरु ultimately from Sanskrit गुरु guru-s, which means "a teacher".

 H

Hanuman 
through Hindi हनुमान from Sanskrit Hanuman (हनुमान्), a kind of small monkey, Hindu mythological God.
Hare Krishna 
from Sanskrit Hare (हरि) and Krishna (कृष्ण).
Himalaya 
from Sanskrit हिमालय himalayah, which means "place of snow".
Hindi 
from Hindi हिंद Hind, via Persian: هندو Hindu "Sind" ultimately from Sanskrit सिन्धु sindhu, which means "a river".

 I

 J

Jackal 
from Turkish çakal, from Persian شغال shaghal, from Middle Indic shagal, ultimately from Sanskrit सृगाल srgalah "the howler".
Jaggery 
via Portuguese jágara, jagre and Malayalam ഛക്കര chakkara perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sarkara.
Jungle 
through Hindi जंगल jangal "a desert, forest" ultimately from Sanskrit जंगल jangala-s, which means "arid".
Juggernaut 
through Hindi जगन्नाथ jagannath ultimately from Sanskrit जगन्नाथ jagat-natha-s, which means "lord of the world".
Jute 
via Bengali পাট jhuto ultimately from Sanskrit जुतास juta-s, which means "twisted hair".

 K

Karma 
from Sanskrit कर्म karman, which means "work, fate".
Kedgeree 
probably ultimately from Sanskrit कृशर krśara.
Kermes 
via French: Kermès, Arabic: قرمز qirmiz and Persian قرمز qermez; perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit: कृमिज kṛmija meaning "worm-made."
Kos 
through Hindi कोस kos ultimately from Sanskrit रोस krosah, which means "a call, a shout".
Krait 
through Hindi करैत karait probably ultimately from Sanskrit: काराइट, a kind of snake.

 L

Lac 
through Urdu لاکھ, Persian لاک and Hindi लाख lakh from Prakrit लक्ख lakkha, ultimately from Sanskrit लक्षं laksha.
Lacquer 
through French: Laque and Portuguese: Laca from Arabic لك lakk, via Prakrit ultimately from Sanskrit लक्षं laksha.
Langur 
through Hindi लुट lut probably ultimately from Sanskrit लंगुलम langūlam.
Lilac 
via Arabic للك lilak from Persian نیلک nilak meaning "bluish", ultimately from Sanskrit नील nila, which means "dark blue".
Loot 
ultimately from Sanskrit लुण्टा lota-m or लून्त्ति luṇṭhati meaning "he steals" through Hindi लूट lūṭ, which means "a booty, stolen thing".

 M

Maharajah 
through Hindi महाराजा ultimately from Sanskrit महा राजन् maha-rājān, which means "a great king".
Maharani 
through Hindi महारानी finally from Sanskrit महा रानी mahārājnī, which means "consort of a maharajah".
Maharishi 
from Sanskrit महर्षि maha-rishi, which means "a great sage".
Mahatma 
from Sanskrit महात्मा mahatman, which means "a great breath, soul".
Mahayana 
from Sanskrit महायान maha-yana, which means "a great vehicle".
Mahout 
via Hindi माहुत (variant of महावत) ultimately from Sanskrit महमत्रह् mahāmātrah.
Mandala 
from Sanskrit मण्डल mandala, which means "a disc, circle".
Mandarin 
via Portuguese mandarim, Dutch mandorijn, Malay mantri, and Hindi मंत्री mantri "a councillor" ultimately from Sanskrit मन्त्रिन् mantri, which means "an advisor".
Mantra 
from Sanskrit मन्त्र mantra-s which means "a holy message or text".
Maya 
from Sanskrit माया māyā, a religious term related with illusion.
Meerkat 
from Dutch meerkat "monkey" (literally: "lake cat"), or probably through Hindi मरकत markat ultimately from Sanskrit मर्कट markata meaning "an ape".
Mithras 
from Sanskrit मित्र Mitrah, which means "a friend".
Moksha 
from Sanskrit मोक्ष moksha, liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth.
Mugger 
via Hindi मगर and Urdu مگر magar ultimately from Sanskrit मकर makara ("sea creature"), like a crocodile, which attacks stealthily.
Mung bean 
through Hindi मुग mū̃g and Pali/Prakrit मुग्ग mugga ultimately from Sanskrit मुग्दह् mudgah, a kind of bean.
Musk 
via Middle English Muske, Middle French Musc, Late Latin Muscus and Late Greek μόσχος moskhos from Persian موشک mushk, ultimately from Sanskrit मुस्कस् muska-s meaning "a testicle", from a diminutive of मुस mus ("mouse").[96]
Mynah 
through Hindi मैना maina ultimately from Sanskrit मदन madana-s, which means "love".

 N

Nainsook 
through Hindi नैनसुख nainsukh and Urdu نینسوکھ ultimately from Sanskrit नयनम्सुख् nayanam-sukh, a kind of fabric.
Namaste 
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit नमस्ते namas-te, which means "I bow to you".
Nard 
through Old French narde and Latin nardus from Greek νάρδος nardos, perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit णलदम् naladam.
Narghile 
through French Narguilé and Persian نارگيله nārghīleh ultimately from Sanskrit नारिकेला nārikelah.
Nark 
probably from Romany nak "a nose", via Hindi नक् nak ultimately from Sanskrit नक्र‌ nakra.
Neem 
through Hindi निम् nīm ultimately from Sanskrit निम्बह् nimbah, a kind of tree.
Nilgai 
through Hindi नीलगाय nīlgāy lit., blue cow ultimately from Sanskrit निल‍गौह् nīla-gauh, an ox-like animal.
Nirvana 
from Sanskrit निर्वाण nirvana-s which means "extinction, blowing out".

 O

Opal 
through French opalle from Latin opalus from Greek ὀπάλλιος opallios, probably ultimately from Sanskrit औपल upalah.
Orange 
through Old French orenge, Middle Latin orenge and Italian arancia from Arabic نارنج naranj, via Persian نارنگ narang and Sanskrit नारङ्ग naranga-s meaning "an orange tree".

 R

Raga 
via Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit राग rāgah, melodic modes used in Indian classical music.
Raita 
ultimately from Sanskrit रजिकतिक्तक rājikātiktakaḥ via Hindi रायता rāytā, a south Asian condiment and side dish made of yogurt and vegetables.
Raj 
through Hindi राज and Pali/Prakrit रज्ज rajja ultimately from Sanskrit राज्य rājya, which means "a king" or "kingdom." Raj means kingdom or domain of a ruler.
Rajah 
through Hindi राज from Sanskrit राजन् rājān, which means "a king".
Ramtil 
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit रमतिलह् rāmatilah, which means "a dark sesame".
Rani 
through Hindi रानी ultimately from Sanskrit राजनि rājnī, consort of a rajah.
Rice 
via Old French ris and Italian riso from Latin oriza, which is from Greek ὄρυζα oryza, through an Indo-Iranian tongue finally from Sanskrit रीहि vrihi-s "rice".
Rook
From Persian رخ rokh; ultimately from रत rath "chariot." (This is the chess piece, not the bird.)
Rupee 
through Hindi रुपया rupiyā ultimately from Sanskrit रूप्यकम् rūpyakam, an Indian silver coin.
Rye 
via Romani from Sanskrit राजा rājā, rye is used to define a gypsy person.

 S

Saccharo- 
via Latin Saccharon and Greek σάκχαρον from Pali सक्खर sakkharā, ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sarkarā.
Sadhu 
ultimately from Sanskrit साधु sādhu meaning "good man."
Samadhi 
from Sanskrit समाधि samadhi, which means "putting together".
Sambal 
through Afrikaans, Malay, and Tamil சம்பல் campāl ultimately from Sanskrit सम्बार sambhārei.
Sambar 
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit संभारह् śambarah, a kind of Asian deer.
Samsara 
from Sanskrit संसार saṃ-sāra, which means "passing through".
Sandal 
via Middle English sandell, Old French sandale, Medieval Latin sandalum, Medieval Greek σανδάλιον sandalion (diminutive of σάνδαλον sandalon) and Arabic and Persian صندل; perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit चन्दनम् candanam meaning "wood for burning incense;" this is the word sandalwood, not related to sandals which is a type of footwear.
Sandhi 
ultimately from Sanskrit संधि samdhih, a wide variety of phonological processes.
Sangha 
from Sanskrit संघ saṅgha, a community of Buddhist monks and nuns.
Sanskrit 
from Sanskrit संस्कृतम् samskrtam "put together, well-formed".
Sapphire 
via Old French saphir, Latin sapphirus and Greek σάπφειρος sappheiros from a Semitic tongue (c.f. Hebrew: ספיר sapir); possible ultimate origin in Sanskrit शनिप्रिय sanipriya which literally means "Sacred to Saturn (Shani)".
Sari 
through Hindi साड़ी sari and Prakrit सदि sadi, finally from Sanskrit षाटी sati "garment".
Satyagraha 
from Sanskrit सत्याग्रह satyagraha, which means "insisting on truth".
Sattva 
from Sanskrit सत्त्व sattvah, which means "truth".
Shaman 
through Russian шама́н from Tungus shaman, perhaps from Chinese 萨满 sha men, via Prakrit समन finally from Sanskrit श्रमण sramana-s "a Buddhist monk".
Shampoo 
via Anglo-Indian shampoo and Hindi चाँपो champo probably from Sanskrit चाँपना capayati, which means "kneads".
Shawl 
from Persian شال shal, finally from Sanskrit सत्ल् satI, which means "a strip of cloth".
Siddha 
from Sanskrit सिद्ध siddhah, which means "achieved, accomplished".
Sikh 
through Hindi सिख sikh "a disciple", ultimately from Sanskrit शिक्शते siksati which means "studies".
Singh 
via Hindi सिंह Singh finally from Sanskrit सिंह simhah which means "a lion".
Singapore 
via Malay Singapura ultimately from Sanskrit सिंहपुरं Simhapuram, literally "the lion city".
Sinhala 
from Sanskrit सिंहल Simhala which means "Sri Lanka".
Sinhalese 
from Sanskrit सिंहल simhala which means "of lions".
Sri Lanka
from Sanskrit: री लंका which means "venerable island."
Stupa 
from Sanskrit स्तूप stūpah which means "crown of the head".
Sugar 
through Old French sucre, Italian zucchero, Middle Latin succarum, Arabic: سكر sukkar and Persian: شکر shakar ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sharkara which means "ground or candied sugar" (originally "grit" or "gravel").
Sulfur 
from Middle English sulfur, Old French soufre, and Latin sulfur and Arabic صفرا sufra meaning "yellow," perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit गन्धक sulvari.[145]
Sunn 
via Hindi: सुन्न ultimately from Sanskrit: सन sāna, a kind of Asian plant.
Sutra 
from Sanskrit सूत्र sutram which means "a rule".
Suttee 
through Hindi finally from Sanskrit सती sati, which means "an honorable woman".
Swami 
through Hindi स्वामी swami ultimately from Sanskrit स्वामी svami, which means "a master".
Swastika 
from Sanskrit स्वस्तिक svastika, which means "one associated with well-being, a lucky charm".

 T

Taka 
via Bengali: টাকা from Sanskrit तन्कह् tankah.
Talipot 
through Hindi and Malay talipat from Sanskrit तलपत्त्रं tālapattram, a kind of tree.
Tendu 
via French "stretched" and Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit तालपत्त्रम् tainduka.
Tantra 
from Sanskrit तन्त्र tantram, which means "weave".
Teapoy
via Hindi तिपाई tipāi and Urdu تپائي tipāʼī,which originated as a Sanskrit compound: त्रि (trí, “three”) and पाद (pā́da, “foot”).
Thug 
through Marathi ठग and Hindi ठग thag probably ultimately from Sanskrit स्थग sthaga, which means "a scoundrel".
Til 
from Sanskrit तिल tilah, a kind of plant.
Toddy 
through Hindi तरी tari ultimately from Sanskrit तल tala-s, a Dravidian origin is also probable.
Tola 
via Hindi: तोला ultimately from Sanskrit तुला tulā, a traditional Indian unit of mass.
Toon 
through Hindi तुन tūn ultimately from Sanskrit तुन्नह् tunnah, a kind of tree.
Tope 
through Hindi टॉप ṭop probably from Prakrit थुपो thūpo, finally from Sanskrit स्तूप stūpah.
Tussah 
through Hindi तसर tasar "shuttle" finally from Sanskrit तसरम् tasaram, a large moth.
Tutty 
through Middle English tutie, Old French, Medieval Latin tūtia, Arabic توتي tūtiyā, and Persian توتیا ultimately from Sanskrit तुत्थं tuttham meaning "blue vitriol", a Dravidian origin is also probable.

 V

Vimana 
from Sanskrit विमान vimana meaning plane, also referred to the top of the temple tower, sanctum santorum.
Vina 
ultimately from Sanskrit वीणा vīṇā through Hindi वीणा vīṇā, a kind of instrument.
Veranda 
A verandah or veranda is a roofed opened gallery or porch वरण्डः.
Virinchi 
from Sanskrit virinchi meaning Brahma, also referred to the Creator of Universe.

 W

Wanderoo 
through Sinhalese: වන්ඩෙරූ finally from Sanskrit वानर vānarah, a kind of monkey.
Wat 
via Thai: วัด ultimately from Sanskrit वात vātah meaning "an enclosure."

 Y

Yoga 
through Hindi योग ultimately from Sanskrit योग yoga-s, which means "yoke, union".
Yogi 
through Hindi योगी yogi from Sanskrit योगस yoga, one who practices yoga or ascetic.
Yeti 
यथि yathih, which means "great sage, holyman" (this might have come to use as one might have mistaken a sage for the real Yeti)

 Z

Zen 
through Japanese 禅 and Chinese 禪 Chán ultimately from Pali झन jhāna and Sanskrit ध्यान dhyana, which means "a meditation".


HINDI LANGUAGE RESOURCES

  1. Hindi - A General Introduction
  2. Hindi-Urdu Grammar
  3. Standard Hindi
  4. Hindi Languages
  5. Devanagari (Hindi Script)
  6. Hindi Belt
  7. Hindi–Urdu phonology
  8. National Library at Kolkata romanization
  9. Khariboli
  10. Acharya Ramlochan Saran
  11. Hindustani orthography
  12. Awadhi language
  13. Bambaiya Hindi
  14. Braj Bhasha
  15. Fiji Hindi
  16. Urdu
  17. Hindi–Urdu controversy
  18. Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) word etymology
  19. Hindustani orthography
  20. Hindi-Urdu Grammar
  21. India
  22. Hobson-Jobson
  23. Languages with official status in India
  24. Linguistic history of India
  25. List of English words of Hindi or Urdu origin
  26. List of English words of Sanskrit origin
  27. Prakrit
  28. Sanskritisation
  29. Devanagari transliteration
  30. Indian Script Code for Information Interchange
  31. Hindi phrasebook - Wikitravel
  32. Learning Devanagari

 


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